Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is an abnormal communication between the wind pipes and the pleural space. It can be a potentially catastrophic complication following lung surgery. Other common causes of BPF include pulmonary infection causing necrosis, trapped lung, persistent spontaneous pneumothorax, chemotherapy or radiotherapy from malignancy, and tuberculosis. Treatment for BPF ranges from medical management to bronchoscopic procedures and repair by surgery.
Various endoscopic techniques like bronchoscopic application of sealants, fibrin glue, silver nitrate cautery, endobronchial valves, coils, and endobronchial stents for the control of small BPFs have been reported. Proper technique must be selected depending on the location, and size of the fistula.
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